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Which colour is best for you?
Establish some basic facts about the room you wish to carpet with this checklist. Think of the way a colour appears in nature to create the effect you want. If you have several objectives, decide your priorities to key unto a lead colour. an accent colour will do the rest.
What is the purpose of the room?
Warm colours from the red and orange families are great in areas conductive to family activity, like kitchens and family rooms. Cooler colours lead to introspection and calm, a mood you might seek for a living room or main bedroom.
How much sun and natural light?
A room with little or no direct sunlight may be warmed with sunny colours; a bright room can be tempered with cool or neutral colours.
Which colour do you like?
Your personal preferences are important guidelines in colour selection. Use colours you like - colours you feel comfortable living with.
Here's how it can work:
Situation: A basement studio used by a couple's twenty-one-year-old daughter. Located below the living area of the main house, the room is used both for work and for relaxation, but has only one small window and so gets very little light.
Priority: To bring instant colour and warmth to the basement area, using a colour scheme designed to be bright, comfortable and inviting at any time of the day. Colours need to be in harmony with the rest of the house, while allowing for the occupant's own 'stamp' of individuality.
Suggested colours: Bold, bright primaries mix well with clean, simple shapes to balance the lack of natural light and give a kinetic, spacious effect. A contrasting decoration scheme of yellow, blue, and red highlights and different planes of walls, ceilings, shelves and stairs, and creates a fresh, young, contemporary feel.
Solution: A rich terracotta-red carpet was chosen and the ceiling painted in the same shade in a bold move which, in this case, emphasises the basement room's cosy, underground feel without making it claustrophobic. Against this, the clean lines of classic modern furniture provide a foil for ethnic ornaments.
Plan your colour scheme together with textures, pattern and furniture you will use in a room. The room itself is your framework, so consider the style of architecture, the room's proportions and architectural details.
What is the basic theme you want for the room?
Deciding on a single theme - whether contemporary, cottage, traditional, ethnic or other - will streamline the decision making.
Are you happy with the size of the room?
Rougher textures, areas of pattern, and generously proportioned furniture will draw in a room. To make a space appear more spacious, eliminate or minimise pattern, and use a predominance of smooth surfaces with compact, clean-lined furniture.
What about sun and natural light?
Tip the balance in favour of strong, warm textures for a room that receives too little sunshine. Make the most of abundant natural light with smoother surfaces. For carpet, this may mean looking at even piles rather than irregular loop piles or sculptured textures.
Here's how it can work:
Basic theme: The owners have converted a spacious, sunny master bedroom into a combined bedroom and play area for their six year-old son. They like the traditional feel of the house but aren't slavish about staying with that theme, preferring an environment that is bright, fun, and tailored specifically to the age of their children. Sun and natural light: The two-storey house, in an established suburb, gets a great deal of light on the upstairs windows, where pull-down blinds take some of the glare out of the sun.
Priorities: First, to optimise space so that the room can double as both a bedroom and a play area. Second, to choose hard-wearing, practical colours and materials that, while standing up to the rigours of family life, will also be bright and attractive to young eyes. Third, to include some features that allude to the age of the house and the vaulted construction of the upstairs rooms.
Solution: A cool, fresh decorating scheme using apple green with bright blue highlights and with hand-drawn aeroplanes whizzing around the walls emphasises the traditional features of the architecture while creating the lively, inviting effect. Furniture is painted to match the walls and is pushed to the side to optimise space and to maximise the effect of a wool rug with a graphic design in primary colours. Dirt-resistant and easy to clean, yet soft enough to be kind to tender young hands and knees, the hard wearing good looks of a loop-pile wool carpet in a two-tone colourway are a sensible yet stylish choice to finish off this room scheme.
The variety of surface textures available in carpet is more enormous than ever. Contributing to the textural diversity is the type of yarn used. Some yarns are hard and tightly twisted, others are soft and bulky. Yarns, especially the bulkier ones, can be felted to make them firmer - or heat or chemically set to retain twist. Yarn apart, you'll find the three basic texture choices are loop pile, cut pile or a combination of the two.
Level loop pile has loops of yarn of uniform length. This texture wears well and doesn't show up footprints. Multi-level loop has a sculptured look, achieved with loops of yarn at different heights.
Cut pile is achieved by cutting the tops of the loops so they stand upright and form an even surface. The yarn has been twisted lightly and heat or chemically set. You'll often find the words 'velour' or 'velvet' used for this type of carpet.
Hard twist cut pile uses yarn very highly twisted and set. This texture can minimise tracking, shading and fluffing. Semi-shag is a longer cut pile with a shaggy appearance.
Cut-loop has a sculptured appearance created by cutting some loops while leaving others uncut at the same or a lower level.
There are also multi-level loop piles, where the higher loops have been cut to give a combination of cut-and-loop pile. Carpet designers can use this to produce a well defined pattern, combined with a sculptured effect.
Which texture you choose will largely depend on decorating considerations. There are other factors, however, to take into account which affect the appearance of the different pile carpets.
Tracking is the effect of imprints on your carpet left by feet. It is more common on cut pile than loop pile surfaces but it is temporary and will disappear after each vacumming.
Shading is the development of irregular light and dark areas on a carpet. The effect is similar to that caused by footmarks, but is permanent. If you are considering a cut pile carpet, keep in mind that, whatever the fibre, all are subject to the possiblity of shading. The effect is more apparent in plain, dark colours. Shading is an appearance characteristic and it doesn't effect the carpet's durability. It isn't considered a defect of manufacturing.
Most carpet styles and textures can show some effect from pile flattening or a change in pile lay due to frequent walking or other forms of traffic. This change of pile lay is often more noticeable in plain, cut pile carpets due to the difference in the visual appearance of the side and top of the tuft. Vacuuming and pile lifting will revive the pile temporarily, as will wet or dry methods of cleaning. After a period, however, the effect will again be evident.
1. Colour Variation
It is normal for an installed carpet to show small amounts of colour variation, either from the selling sample or variation between carpets sourced from different production runs and therefore different dye-lots.
The dyeing and printing of fabrics, textiles and carpets is a complex process with many variables involved. In carpets, small variations in the texture of the fibre can also result in perceived colour differences.
There are external factors at work as well. For example, the customer may base their selection from a sample that has been in stock for a considerable period of time. In this case, the sample is likely to be from a different dye-lot to a subsequent production run and the sample may also have slightly deteriorated over time through handling or fading.
There is no Australian or International Standard covering the measurement and assessment of colour in carpets. International Standards have been published and tolerances established between buyers and sellers of plain coloured fabrics with a regular surface texture. However, these controls are not generally suitable for carpet because a carpet uses mixtures of colour and variations in surface texture to create aesthetic appeal.
The difficulty of precise colour matching and the absence of meaningful standards is not a problem isolated to the carpet industry. The same problem applies to the colour matching of vinyl, wood, ceramic tiles and linoleum and it extends to all sectors of the textile industry. The paper and metal industries also face similar problems concerning print decoration assessment.
While manufacturers take great care to accurately repeat colour throughout the production and sample life of a product, there will always be some margin for variance. colour assessment is also largely subjective; what may be acceptable to one customer may not be acceptable to another. Colour assessment depends on the colour vision skills of the viewer, the type of light source the sample is viewed under and also the light sources where the product is installed.
The latter is particularly important, as for example "daylight" fluorescent lights can give a slightly different colour indication to "warm white" fluorescent lights.
Where possible, view the sample of carpet at home and under different light conditions.
Matting is a wear-induced characteristic that is seen as the merging together of carpet tufts to the stage where they may become less defined. In a patterned carpet, matting may result in the loss of sharpness of pattern or masking.
Matting occurs in all carpets to some degree and is not considered a manufacturing defect unless it happens rapidly or to an unacceptable degree. Being a wear-related characteristic, matting is more likely to occur in high traffic areas and traffic turning points.
Usually matting becomes apparent when a carpet is wrongly chosen for a high heavy traffic area or where carpet maintenance is poor or inadequate. Matting may be traced to the use of a yarn type or construction not suitable for a particular traffic environment.
A well-constructed carpet, correctly chosen for the traffic environment can sustain a great deal of wear if properly maintained.
3. Missing or Damaged Tufts
Despite close post-production inspection, carpet sometimes leaves the factory with a few tufts missing or some individual tufts may be lightly damaged. When the carpet is power stretched during installation, missing or damaged tufts can become evident for the first time.
A missing tuft is usually caused by a yarn-end running out or a break in the many hundreds of yarns that are supplied to the tufting machine or loom. Tufts can also be damaged if accidentally soiled with dirt or lubricant, or if not cut cleanly in a cut-pile carpet.
Missing tufts can be easily replaced by hand sewing and usually damaged tufts can be replaced in the same manner. Hand sewing is the method of correction in the mill. Accordingly, manufacturers should be afforded right of access to manually replace missing tufts or small areas of tuft damage. A tuft repaired in this manner by a professional will not be noticeable and will not detract from the quality or the durability of the carpet.
A small application of latex is a common method of re-joining ends of carpet yarn that may have broken or run out on the yarn feeder creels. The latex join can occasionaly appear on the surface of a new carpet although most are picked up and removed in the post-production inspection process. Latex contaminated loops or tufts can be easily trimmed and a skilled tradesperson or manufacturer representative can sew new yarn into the carpet. The contamination of loops through latex joins in not a manufacturing defect.
4. Pile Reversal Shading and Pile Disturbance
Highlighting and shading, including permanent pile reversal shading are apparent colour differences caused by light reflection.
Some of the terms used to describe pile reversal shading include footmarking, tracking and permanent pile reversal shading (PPRS).
After a carpet has been recently vacuumed, footmarking may be apparent. This is because the pile will generally be laying in natural lay direction induced at the time of manufacturing. Foot traffic brushes the pile against the prevailing direction and the different light reflectance from these tufts gives the impression of change of shade or hue in the carpet. A vacuuming action or direction that disturbs the pile in this manner has the same effect. Pile reversal shading caused by footmarking and vacuuming is temporary and is not a manufacturing defect. Tracking is caused by flattening of the pile in higher traffic walkways. Tracking can also appear as an apparent colour difference (also due to light reflectance) but usually it looks like compressed or flattened areas of carpet pile.
The degree of flattening has some relation to the density and pile height of the carpet and is more noticeable in cut-pile carpets. Tracking occurs in all carpets to some degree and is not considered a manufacturing defect unless it happens rapidly or to an unacceptable degree.
Permanent Pile Reversal Shading (PPRS) is used to describe irregular shaped light and dark patches in a cut-pile carpet. In the carpet industry, PPRS ic more commonly known as watermarking, pooling or puddling.
PPRS is a condition caused by disturbance in the lay of the carpet pile and the light reflectance from the tuft ends producing what appears to be different shades and hue in the carpet. However, unlike the other forms of pile disturbance described above, PPRS is permanent. It will not go away and cannot be removed or mitigated by vacuuming or brushing of the pile.
PPRS has been with the carpet industry since the first cut pile carpets were manufactured hundreds of years ago. In some markets, PPRS is actually regarded as a sign of quality. Years of research and inquiry have failed to find a reason to explain the underlying cause of PPRS and accordingly, it is considered to be a phenomenon, not a manufacturing defect.
5. Shedding or Fuzzing
Shedding is the term used to describe the release from the carpet yarn of very small fibres that collect on the surface of the carpet. Shedding is a problem usually only seen in new carpet installations because it is activated by the abrasive wear of foot traffic and vacuuming in the first few week/months of installation.
Loose or 'shed' fibres usually originate from staple or spun carpet yarns. These yarns are made by combining very short fibres and filaments spun tightly together to form a continuous yarn. In the early carpet wear stages, some of the outside fibres become detached from the yarn bundle and move to the surface of the carpet where they collect together. As a carpet settles or 'beds' down, the condition becomes less and less noticeable to the point where the release of these small fibres ceases to any noticeable degree.
Shedding is considered to be a noraml condition and is not a manufacturing defect unless it is excessive and continues beyond a normal settling down period. Excessive shedding is rare but when is does occur, it is usually due to inadequate 'yarn set' or a blending of carpet fibre types that are incompatible.
Fuzzing or 'cobwebbing' appears as a very fine mat of fibres on the surface of a carpet. Fuzzing can have a number of causes.
In cut-pile carpets it is mainly the result of the tips of the pile fibres losing a degree of the yarn twist and 'yarn set'. (Settling is a part of the yarn manufacturing process that locks the twisted piles of yarn together).
In many cases fuzzing can be corrected by shearing away the cobweb of fibres on the installed carpet. A special machine is used and the results achieved are generally excellent. The on-site shearing procedure should not be attempted by anyone other than the manufacturer's representative. The performance of a carpet that has been on-site sheared will not be compromised in any manner.
In loop-pile carpets fuzzing occurs in abraded areas and is more common in carpets that contain a blend of natural and synthetic fibres in the yarn.
Fuzzing can be set off by the abrasive action of ripple-soled shoes or rubber-soled sports shoes. Therefore, fuzzing is most apparent in areas where feet are shuffled, such as under tables or in front of lounge chairs. Protective mats in these abrasion sensitive areas should be considered.
Shedding or fuzzing is a normal characteristic of some carpets and is not a manufacturing defect unless it is excessive and does not respond to corrective measures.
6. Spouting and Snagging
Spouts are odd ends in cut pile carpets that extend above the surface of the pile. Sprouts can emanate from manufacture, installation and use.
In the manufacture of a cut pile carpet, the odd tuft can partly double over and become hidden below the prevailing level of the carpet pile. During the finishing process, these tufts can escape the shearing blades that level the pile surface to the even look of a cut pile carpet. In service, these extra long tufts or loops tend to work upwards helped by foot traffic or vacuum cleaning.
Spouts can also be caused during installation by the action of a knee kicker or power stretcher head. Sprouts produced in this manner are usually found around the perimeter of rooms and near seams and joins. Damaged or badly adjusted teeth in the installers' carpet stretching tool are usually the cause of these sprouts. Similarly, the installer may not have applied sufficient tension to the head of the tool when stretching or withdrawing it from the carpet's pile.
The installer can also introduce sprouting at seams on loop pile carpet by cutting into the loops and not running the cutting tool along or across loop lines.
Sprouts can also be produced when the carpet is in use. Common causes are the pull of protruding shoe nails, animal claws, children's toys, the sharp edges of vacuum cleaner heads and the dragging movement of furniture over the carpet.
Sprouting can be easily trimmed without damaging the carpet and can be readily fixed on site by a skilled installer or carpet professional.
Snagging is the forceful removal or distortion of tufts from a loop pile carpet. The same forces that cause sprouting cause snagging. If tuft bind is insufficient, the effects of snagging are most likely to be seen on the risers of stairs and steps where catching and scuffling often occurs.
With a carpet surface made up of small loops, the likelyhood of catching and pulling is much higher than compared to cut pile carpets. For this reason, manufacturers apply higher levels of adhesion between the pile and the backing fabrics to firmly anchor the loop into place. In grading schemes like the ACCS, the minimum tuft withdrawal force requirements for loop pile carpets will be significantly higher that the tuft withdrawal requirements for cut pile carpets.
There are well-established tests to determine whether bonding of the carpet tufts to the backing fabric is at an acceptable level. Tested properties can then be compared directly to the tuft withdrawal requirements (bond strength) of the carpet grading schemes and if a product is found to be deficient in the area of bond strength, the customer can expect redress.
In summary, sprouting and snagging in carpets can be caused by deficiencies in the manufacturing process, by the carpet installer or by the customer. In each case, the responsible party or action can generally be identified by physical evidence and the problem resolved accordingly.
7. Pattern Matching
Carpets are manufactured in standard widths consistent with the width of the tufting machine or weaving loom that a particular product is made on. For example, most tufted carpets are manufactured in machine widths of 3.66 metres (12 foot wide), commonly known as a broadloom or lineal metre width. Woven carpets can come in various narrowloom widths (69cm, 1 metre, 2 metres and 3.66 metres).
When a carpet is installed in a room or run throughout a house, it is normally cut and joined to fit particular areas. In patterned carpets, this will require the installer to match the pattern abutting each edge of the carpet used.
During manufacture, physical pressure and tension are exerted on the carpet at its various component stages. In a tufted carpet for example, there will be forces and stresses on the greige fabric introduced by the action of the tufting machine and the rotation of the backing rolls; the the secondary backing stage latex wetting and oven drying occur in quick succession; the finishing process may include tip shearing; and most modern carpet mills move product between stages of production through systems of rollers, conveyors and accumulators.
Remembering that carpet is a textile fabric, each of these processes will introduce small stresses and pressures on the carpet in both length and width directions and the forces applied are unlikely to be even or predictable. As a result, a repeating pattern may not exactly match along the length of the carpet or across its width, particularly from one production run to another.
Another example is a cut and loop pile style (scupltured) carpet with a printed colour pattern. The two patterning features are introduced at separate stages of the production process so it is unlikely that the two patterns can be synchronised.
Installation methods, site conditions such as temperature and humidity and atmospheric conditions during storage can all contribute to instability in the pattern and the inability to achieve perfect pattern match. For instance, direct stick methods (glueing the carpet directly to the subfloor without underlay) give the installer far less opportunity to adjust the pattern match than an underlay/gripper installation where the carpet can be slightly stretched to achieve close pattern match. Notwithstanding the many variables involved, a competent carpet layer should be able to obtain a reasonable pattern match in most circumstances with most products.
8. Shift Lines in Patterned Loop Pile Carpets
Shift lines are parallel lines appearing on the surface of patterned loop pile carpets at regular intervals.
Shift lines may be visible on the surface of patterned loop pile tufted carpets due to the nature of construction (double sliding needle bar in particular). These lines are sometimes more apparent with 'large' designs and patterns. Colour directional pile lay and light sources are also contributing factors.
Shift lines are not a manufacturing fault.
1. Look around at what's available. In main centres manufacturer's showrooms are also worth visiting to see their full ranges of carpet.
2. Determine your budget to include underlay and installation.
3. Browsing with samples of fabrics and paint colours from the room/s to be carpeted will help narrow the possibilities.
4. Take home the largest available carpet samples to see how they look down on your floor. Consider them in different lighting including artificial lighting at night - colour alters in different lighting conditions.
5. Choose a reliable dealer. Family, friends and acquaintances who have recently purchased carpet may be able to recommend retailers they have found competitive and helpful.
6. Retailers generally offer to measure and quote on an obligation free basis. They are able to work from house plans or come to your house to measure up.
7. A written quote is a binding agreement and preferable to a verbal quote. Check if the quote includes measuring, underlay and fitting and laying.
8. If you are getting competitive quotes ensure they're on the same basis - that the carpet metreage and the type and quality of underlay are the same.
9. Talk to your retailer about how the carpet will be laid. Double check measurements and the amount of carpet required. Make sure you are happy about which direction the pile will lie, and that you understand the laying procedure.
10. Pay as much as you can afford for your new carpet. Carpet is an investment, and a quality carpet will live up to expectations for many years. A cheap buy is not necessarily a bargain.
Most carpets look great when first laid - it's time and continual use that provides the true test. How long you can expect a carpet to keep that 'just bought' look depends on a number of factors - whether the carpet is right for its location and whether the fibre offers the combination of qualities necessary for a carpet to keep its good looks. Another factor is the care you give the carpet.
If you vacuum regularly - say once a week, or even every day for carpet in high-traffic areas - and treat spills as they happen, then you may need do nothing more to maintain a well-chosen carpet for quite some time. A thorough vacuuming should include under beds, behind drapes, inside wardrobes, along skirtings and beneath furniture to discourage possible attack by insects.
Because different fibres have varying dirt resist capabilities, some carpet will need more attention than others. Some synthetic fibres are surface coated to improve their resistance to soiling and staining. Foot traffic, certain chemicals and cleaning methods can significantly affect this coating, leaving it ineffective.
Wool has a natural, in-built soil resistance. Unlike synthetics, it is moisture absorbing - this means it doesn't tend to attract static which in turn acts as a magnet for dust and dirt particles floating in the air. Nor can dirt easily penetrate the mesh of opaque, scaly wool fibres, so soil is easily vacuumed off the surface of a wool carpet. Dirt, working its way into the pile of a synthetic carpet can dull the transparent to translucent fibres and alter the appearance of the carpet.
Stain repellent sprays aren't recommended for wool carpets since they have limited durability. Some carpet manufacturers won't accept responsibility for complaints about colour if a treatment has been used.
Accidental burns are another concern affecting the long term looks of your carpet. With synthetic carpets, particular care will be needed to avoid these. Many synthetic fibres melt on contact with cigarettes or matches, leaving black scars that are difficult to remove. Wool won't ignite easily and scorches rather than melts so any burn marks that do occur can usually be removed with a brisk brushing.
Synthetic fibres are tolerant of wet conditions and contrary to common opinion, wool carpet also needs only reasonable care in areas such as bathrooms. Wool can absorb up to 30 percent of its weight in moisture vapour without feeling damp or wet. (This characteristic contributes to wool's natural flame resistance and its low static build-up). If you spill water on a wool carpet, blot it up with a dry absorbent cloth or paper towels, applying gentle pressure as you do so.
Rugs or mats put down in high traffic areas such as entrances can prevent wear and extend the life of your floor.
A good quality, effective vacuum is the best tool you can own to maintain your carpet. a rule of thumb is to vaccum at least once a week. A vacuum with a rotating brush is best for low cut pile carpets, but turn the brush off or change the head for loop pile or berber carpet to prevent excess fuzzing.
To download a copy of our Cleaning Spills & Spot Removal Chart click here.
Professional cleaning once every one to two years will do wonders to revitalise your carpet and keep it hygienically clean. It is an essential step in looking after your carpet and a significant factor in ensuring your carpet lasts longer.
The most important thing to remember when organising professional cleaning is - only use a qualified professional. Carpet cleaning is a science that requires skills and expertise that can only be obtained through formal training. Untrained operators may do your carpet more harm than good.
To help, Wools of New Zealand have established a network of Approved Wools of New Zealand WoolCare Technicians, the most highly trained and qualified technicians in Australia. Membership is by invitation only to ensure the very best level of service.
All WoolCare Technicians are specialists in wool carpet care. In fact they have all received specialised training from the Wool Research Organisation of New Zealand and the Australasian Carpet Cleaning Institute. WoolCare Technicians only use formulas that are safe for your family and pets and their service included specialist spot removal treatment for serious spills and spots that you haven't been able to fix.
To make an appointment with your nearest Wools of New Zealand Approved WoolCare Technician, call 1800 808 034.
Anti-static - Carpet specially treated to reduce the effects of static electricity.
Antron - A brand name for nylon, registered as a trademark by Du Pont, a nylon fibre manufacturer.
Axminster - A traditional method of manufacturing cut pile carpet. The yarn and backing are woven at the same time to produce highly patterned designs of many colours.
Berber - A term that originally referred to the traditional hand weaving of North African tribespeople who used handspun yarns made from the underlyed wool of local sheep. This homespun, natural coloured look has been developed on a commercial basis by carpet manufacturers.
Boucle - (pronounced boo-clay) - A heavily textured loop pile.
Broadloom - Carpet manufactured in 3.66m widths (the pre-metric 12 foot width) to minimise seaming.
Coving - Returning a floor covering up against a wall surface. Properly laid, it will look continuous with the floor carpet. In fact, it's a strip of carpet laid separately.
Cut Pile - Carpet in which the tops of loops are cut to a uniform length, lightly twisted and heat set so the yarns stand upright.
Fernmark - The black and white, stylised fern symbol respresenting Wools of New Zealand. This brand is to be found on premium carpet products which use a majority of New Zealand wool and which meet strict international performance standards.
Frise - (pronounced free-zay) - Also called hard twist, this carpet pile uses highly twisted yarn for a more textured cut pile effect.
Loop Pile - Carpet with yarn loops of uniform length.
Multi-level Loop Pile - Carpet with loops of yarn at different heights creating a sculptured effect.
Pile Weight - The weight of pile per square metre or square yard of carpet.
Pilling - Small balls of fluff. Plush - A cut pile carpet in which the tuft ends all blend together.
Ply - The number of single yarns twisted together to market he final yarn. Two and three ply are used most frequently in carpet productions.
Primary Backing - In tufted carpet, this is the woven backing onto which tufts are inserted by needles. Tufts are bonded into place with latex applied on the reverse side.
Saxony - A dense cut pile carpet made with heavy yarns treated so each tuft end can be easily seen. A shorter pile than shag pile and generally a closer weave.
Secondary Backing - In tufted carpet, an additional backing is bonded onto the primary backing with latex.
Setting - A process used to fix the twist in yarns when they are to be used in cut pile textures requireing good tuft definition.
Shading - The apparent change of colour in an area of a cut pile carpet caused by pile laying in different directions. It is permanent and not a manufacturing defect. Also called pile switch, pile reversal, puddling and watermarking.
Shag Pile - A long pile, normally loosely woven carpet used mainly for decorative purposes.
Stainmaster - A brand name for nylon fibre that has been chemically treated to resist some stains.
Tufted Carpet - the tufting method of carpet manufacture was developed commercially in 1946 and has seen spectacular growth since then. Hundreds of needles thread the yarn through a lightweight backing, forming loops or tufts of the required length. An adhesive coating is then applied to the reverse side, anchoring tufts in position and a second backing of jute or foam is applied for extra strength.
Velour - Cut pile carpet with a uniform, velvet-like surface.
Wilton - A woven carpet. Textures can be in cut pile, loop pile and a combination of cut and loop pile. A carved appearance can also be achieved. Normally Wilton carpets come in one to three colours, but can include a up to five colours.
Woolmark - Symbol certifying that the carpet contains wool and has met mandatory performance standards.
Wools of New Zealand - Formerly the New Zealand Wool Board, this company lends its name to premium carpet and clothing products contain a high proportion of New Zealand wool.